3 in the journal Behavior and Helps. Our study increases the evidence that needle-exchange programs not only work, but are cost-effective investments in the fight against HIV, Monica Ruiz, of George Washington University in Washington, D.C., stated in a university information release. Ruiz is an assistant analysis professor in the section of prevention and community health at the university’s Milken Institute College of Public Health. We saw a 70 % drop in newly diagnosed HIV instances in just two years. Simultaneously, this program preserved the District huge amount of money that would have been spent for treatment experienced those 120 persons been infected, she stated.For more than three years, molecular evolutionists have idea that no matter how many genetic mutations show up on a particular gene, whether those mutations become set in the species is set primarily by organic selection. The new study implies that the speed of which these fresh mutations arrive also affects if the mutations become fixed. Lahn’s team viewed nearly 6,000 genes within their study. For each gene, they compared sequences between two mammalian species. These mutations are functionally neutral, which means natural selection isn’t a factor in if they are approved during evolution.