They made extensive usage of polymer valves developed by Richard Mathies also, Ph.D., and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, and credit the Mathies group for teaching them steps to make and make use of these valves. To maintain costs low, the investigators made the microfluidic device itself as easy as possible. All injection ports, pumps, heaters, and optical recognition components reside in a manifold that clamps around the cup microfluidic slide. Engineering work is now underway to develop a manifold suitable for use in scientific settings and eventual human clinical trials. The investigators, and also researchers who did not take part in this study, note that this product should work for any gene-based assay for which a PCR primer exists or can be developed.S.‘Technology may be the palette and the specialist’s creativity is the brush.’ Kenneth E. Salyer, MD, FACS, FAAP, of the World Craniofacial Foundation in Dallas will discuss how he utilized technology in preparing the surgery performed to split up Egyptian conjoined twins Mohamed and Ahmed Ibrahim in 2003. The twins had been joined near the top of their heads. Lessons learned from the effective separation and reconstruction of the twins are opening up new opportunities for future work in cells engineering and regenerative medication.